Understanding the Threat Landscape
Before diving into specific data sources, let’s first acknowledge the evolving threat landscape in the cloud. Attackers often target misconfigurations, vulnerabilities in containerized applications, and inadequate access controls. They leverage comprmised containers to establish footholds, escalate privileges, and move laterally within your environment. Therefore, your forensics strategy should prioritize data that sheds light on container activity, user actions, and resource interactions.
Core AWS Forensics Data Sources
CloudTrail: This central logging service records API calls made to AWS services. Analyzing CloudTrail logs reveals who did what, when, and from where, providing a timeline of activities leading up to and during the incident.
VPC Flow Logs: These logs capture network traffic between your VPC resources and the internet. Identifying unusual outbound traffic or communication with suspicious IP addresses can pinpoint compromised instances or lateral movement attempts.
DynamoDB Streams: If your applications utilize DynamoDB, these streams offer near real-time updates on table modifications. This data can be invaluable for reconstructing data access or manipulation during the attack.
S3 Object Level Logging: For S3 buckets storing sensitive data, enabling object-level logging provides detailed records of read, write, and delete operations. This granular data can help identify compromised access keys or unauthorized data exfiltration attempts.
CloudWatch Logs: This unified logging service aggregates logs from various AWS services and applications. Analyzing CloudWatch logs alongside other data sources can paint a holistic picture of the attack, revealing correlations and anomalies across different systems.
Beyond the Core
While the core services listed above provide essential data, additional sources can enrich your investigation:
IAM Access Advisor: This tool simulates actions a specific IAM user or role can perform within your account. Analyzing Access Advisor outputs can help identify potential abuse of compromised credentials or excessive permissions granted to users or applications.
Amazon GuardDuty: This threat detection service analyzes CloudTrail logs to identify suspicious activity. GuardDuty findings can provide valuable leads and expedite your investigation.
AWS Inspector: This vulnerability scanning service identifies security weaknesses in your EC2 instances and container images. Reviewing Inspector findings after an incident can reveal exploitable vulnerabilities the attacker might have leveraged.
Time is of the essence: Promptly start data collection and analysis to minimize data loss and preserve evidence.
Enable relevant logging and monitoring: Proactive configuration of comprehensive logging and monitoring across your AWS services ensures you have the necessary data when an incident occurs.
Utilize forensic tools: Numerous cloud-based forensic tools can automate data collection, analysis, and visualization, streamlining your investigation.
Mastering the diverse data sources within your AWS environment is critical for successful cloud forensics. By understanding the types of data available, the evolving threat landscape, and the relevant tools at your disposal, you can transform from a passive observer to a skilled detective, unearthing the hidden truths and proactively safeguarding your cloud from future attacks.
This blog post provides a starting point for exploring AWS forensics data sources. Remember, the specifics of your investigation will depend on the nature of the attack and your unique cloud environment. Continuous learning and experimentation with different data sources and forensic tools will equip you to effectively navigate the ever-changing landscape of cloud security.